Torque and Force Induced by ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next during Shaping of Large and Small Root Canals in Extracted Teeth

By Ana Arias, DDS, PhD, Rupinderpal Singh, DDS, and Ove A. Peters, DMD, MS, PhD From the Department of Endodontics, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, University of the Pacific, San Francisco, California. Address requests for reprints to Dr Ana Arias, University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, 2155Webster Street, San Francisco, CA 94115. E-mail address: